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By Lynn L. Bergeson and Margaret R. Graham

On July 10, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a prepublication version of a direct final rule, Significant New Use Rule on Certain Chemical Substances, noting the  issuance of  significant new use rules (SNUR) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 29 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN) and subject to consent orders under TSCA Section 5(e).  These are the first rules with consent orders negotiated under new TSCA.  Persons who intend to manufacture or process any of the chemicals for an activity that is designated as a significant new use (SNU) by this rule must notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity, and the notification will initiate EPA’s evaluation of the intended use within the applicable review period.  Further, “[p]ersons may not commence manufacture or processing for the significant new use until EPA has conducted a review of the notice, made an appropriate determination on the notice, and has taken such actions as are required with that determination.”  EPA will be accepting comments on these SNURs; comments will be due 30 days after publication in the Federal Register.  If comment deemed adverse is submitted after the rules are published in the Federal Register as to any of the 29 chemical substances, EPA will withdraw the rule and propose it for comment.  Comment will be due 30 days after publication.

EPA states it is issuing these SNURs for specific chemical substances which have undergone premanufacture review because it wants to achieve the following objectives with regard to the SNUs designated in this rule:

  1. EPA will receive notice of any person's intent to manufacture or process a TSCA Inventory listed chemical substance for the described significant new use before that activity begins;
  2. EPA will have an opportunity to review and evaluate data submitted in a SNUN before the notice submitter begins manufacturing or processing a listed chemical substance for the described significant new use;
  3. EPA will be able to either determine that the prospective manufacture or processing is not likely to present an unreasonable risk, or to take necessary regulatory action associated with any other determination, before the described significant new use of the chemical substance occurs; and
  4. EPA will ensure that all manufacturers and processors of the same chemical substance that is subject to a TSCA Section 5(e) consent order are subject to similar requirements.

The 29 chemicals are:

  • PMN Number: P-15-310; Chemical name: 1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, mixed decyl and octyl triesters;
  • PMN Numbers:  P-15-487, P-15-488, P-15-489, P-15-490, and P-15-491; Chemical names: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-165; Chemical name: Propanoic acid, iron (2+) salt (2:1);
  • PMN Numbers:  P-16-255, P-16-256, P-16-257, P-16-258, and P-16-259; Chemical names:  1-Butanaminium, N,N,N-tributyl-, carbonic acid (1:1) (P-16-255), 1-Butanaminium, N,N,N-tributyl-, methyl carbonate (1:1) (P-16-256), 1-Butanaminium,N,N,N-tributyl-, ethyl carbonate (1:1) (P-16-257), 1-Butanaminium, N,N,N-tributyl-,propyl carbonate (1:1) (P-16-258), 1-Butanaminium, N,N,N-tributyl-, and 1-methylethyl carbonate (1:1) (P-16-259); CAS numbers: 17351-62-1(P-16-255), 56294-05-2(P-16-256), 478796-04-2(P-16-257), 1338579-13-7(P-16-258), and 1803407-49-9(P-16-259);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-284; Chemical name:  Anilino substituted bis-triazinyl derivative of 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'- disulfonic acid, mixed amine sodium salt (generic);
  • PMN Numbers:  P-16-309 and P-16-310; Chemical names:  12-Hydroxystearic acid, reaction products with alkylene diamine and alkanoic acid (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-315; Chemical name:  Alkyldiene, polymer, hydroxy terminated alkoxysilylalkylcarbamate (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-323; Chemical name: Alkylaldehyde, reaction products with substituted carbomonocyclesubstituted heteromonocycle-alkylene glycol bis[[[[substituted(oxoneoalkyl)oxy]alkyl] amino]alkyl] ether polymer and alkyl substituted alkanediamine, acetate salts (generic);
  • PMN Numbers:  P-16-330 and P-16-331; Chemical names:  Hydroxy functional triglyceride polymer with glycerol mono-ester and 1,1'-methylenebis[4-isocyanatobenzene] (P-16-330) and Hydroxy functional triglyceride polymer with glycerol mono-ester and 1,1'-methylenebis[isocyanatobenzene] (P-16-331) (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-360; Chemical name:  Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),.alpha.-(1-oxodocosyl)-.omega.-[(1- oxodocosyl)oxy]-;
  • PMN Number:  P-16-361;  Chemical name: Pulp, cellulose, reaction products with lignin;
  • PMN Numbers:  P-16-365 and P-16-367; Chemical names:  Alkyl carbonate, polymer with, substituted alkanes and substituted heteromonocycle, substituted alkyl acrylate-blocked (generic) (P-16-365) and substituted heteromonocycle, polymer with substituted alkane and ethoxylated alkane, substituted heteromonocycle substituted alkyl ester-blocked (generic) (P-16-367);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-369; Chemical name:  Substituted heteromonocycle, telomer with substituted carbomonocycles, substituted alkyl ester (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-387;  Chemical name:  Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid, polymer with alicyclic polyhydric alcohol and polyoxyalkylene (generic);
  • PMN Number:  P-16-455; Chemical name:  Sodium tungsten oxide;
  • PMN Number:  P-16-503; Chemical name:  Fatty acids, tall-oil, polymers with alkanoic acid, substituted carbomonocycle, alkyl peroxide-initiated (generic); and
  • PMN Number:  P-16-591; Chemical name:  Alkyl bisphenol (generic).

 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Margaret R. Graham

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released a pre-publication version of its direct final rule signed on April 5, 2017, which states that EPA will be promulgating significant new use rules (SNUR) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 37 chemical substances which were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN).  This action will require persons who intend to manufacture or process any of these 37 chemical substances for an activity that is designated as a significant new use (SNU) by this rule to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity.  This final rule will become effective 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.  We note that all of these substances were reviewed under old TSCA, prior to June 22, 2016.  The 37 chemical substances are:

  • PMN Number P-05-436:  Ethylene glycol ester of an aromatic substituted propenoic acid (generic);
  • PMN Number P-10-504:  Phosphoric acid, metal salt (generic);
  • PMN Number P-13-289:  Alkanoic acid, tetramethylheteromonocycle ester (generic); PMN Number P-13-908:  Polyether polyester urethane phosphate (generic);
  • PMN Number P-14-129; CAS Number: 35123:  Propanamide, 2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-. -06-9;
  • PMN Number P-14-260; CAS Number: 1514-82-5:  1-Propene, 2-bromo-3,3,3-trifluoro-
  • PMN Number P-14-759:  Pyrolysis oil product (generic);
  • PMN Number P-15-279; CAS Number: 1613320-81-2:  1-Octanamine, 7 (or 8)-(aminomethyl);
  • PMN Number P-15-409: Substituted alkanolamine ether (generic);
  • PMN Number P-15-583:  Butanedioic acid, alkyl amine, dimethylbutyl ester (generic);
  • PMN Number P-15-672:  Carbon nanotube (generic);
  • PMN Number P-15-678: Metal salt of mineral acid, reaction products with alumina, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide oxide (Al(OH)O), silica, titanium oxide (TiO2) and 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine (generic);
  • PMN Numbers P-15-766 and P-15-767: Halogenated bisphenol A, polymer with epichlorohydrin, alkenoate (generic) (P-15-766); and Halogenated bisphenol A, polymer with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and epoxidized phenol-formaldehyde resin, alkenoate (generic) (P-15-767); 
  • PMN Number P-16-14:  Silicon, tris[dialkyl phenyl]-dialkyl-dioxoalkane-naphthalene disulfonate (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-40: Tar acids fraction (generic);
  • PMN Numbers P-16-59 and P-16-60: Dialkyl fattyalkylamino propanamide alkylamine (generic) (P-16-59) and Fattyalkylaminopropanoate ester (generic) (P-16-60);
  • PMN Number P-16-70; CAS Number: 200443-98-7: Boron sodium oxide (B5NaO8), labeled with boron-10;
  • PMN Number P-16-94: Perfluoropolyether modified organosilane (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-95: Modified phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-101: Disubstituted benzene alkanal (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-102:  Phthalic anhydride, polymer with alkylene glycol and alkanepolyol, acrylate (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-104; CAS Number: 1546765-39-2:  2-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dichloro-6-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-3-methoxyphenyl)-;
  • PMN Numbers P-16-136, P-16-139, and P-16-140:  Dialkylamino alkylamide inner salt (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-170:  Nanocarbon (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-177; CAS Number: 1440529-21-4:  Barium molybdenum niobium tantalum tellurium vanadium zinc oxide;
  • PMN Number P-16-179:  Alkanoic acids, esters with alkanetriol (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-182:  (1) Manganese, tris[.mu.-(2-ethylhexanoato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)]bis(octahydro-1,4,7-trimethyl-1H-1,4,7-triazonine-.kappa.N1,.kappa.N4,.kappa.N7)di- (CAS Number 2020407-62-7; Chemical A); (2) Manganese, [.mu.-(acetato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)]bis[.mu.-(2-ethylhexanoato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)]bis(octahydro-1,4,7-trimethyl-1H-1,4,7-triazonine.kappa.N1,.kappa.N4,.kappa.N7)di- (CAS Number 2020407-63-8; Chemical B); (3) Manganese, bis[.mu.-(acetato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)][.mu.-(2-ethylhexanoato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)]bis(octahydro-1,4,7-trimethyl-1H-1,4,7-triazonine-.kappa.N1,.kappa.N4,.kappa.N7)di- (CAS Number 2020407-64-9; Chemical C); and (4) Manganese, tris[.mu.-(acetato-.kappa.O:.kappa.O’)]bis(octahydro-1,4,7-trimethyl-1H-1,4,7-triazonine-.kappa.N1,.kappa.N4,.kappa.N7)di- (CAS Number 2020407-65-0; Chemical D);
  • PMN Number P-16-190:  Aryl polyolefin (generic);
  • PMN Number P-16-260:  Melamine nitrate (generic); and
  • PMN Number P-16-272; CAS Number: 308068-11-3:  Lecithins, soya, hydrogenated.
Tags: PMN, SNUR, EPA

 

By Lynn L. Bergeson, Richard E. Engler, Ph.D., and Margaret R. Graham

On April 25, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued two notices in the Federal Register expressing its determination that 28 new chemical notifications are “not likely to present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.”  82 Fed Reg. 19044 (Statement of Findings for December 2016); 82 Fed. Reg. 19046 (Statements of Findings for February 2017).  The statements of findings list premanufacture notices (PMN) and microbial commercial activity notices (MCAN) regarding new polymer and biodegradable chemicals submitted to EPA under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).  The notices listed in the December 2016 statement of findings are:

The notices listed in the February 2017 statement of findings are:

Commentary

The publication of these two notices fulfills EPA’s obligation under TSCA Section 5(g) to publish its findings; all of these determinations had previously been posted to the EPA website.  It is to EPA’s credit that EPA has made its determinations public as soon as practicable by posting those determinations on its website.  We recognize that publication in the Federal Register often lags behind EPA’s decisions because of resource constraints and competition with other Federal Register notices.  We are pleased to see new chemicals cleared for production.

Nevertheless, EPA’s pace of approving new chemicals for the marketplace has slowed tremendously since enactment of TSCA reform.  Furthermore, these notices do not provide any line of sight on the reasons contributing to the delays, or EPA’s resolution of these issues.  To date, EPA has only published its final determinations for substances with low concerns for heath and ecological hazards.  With only 28 new chemicals approved from the time period of December 1, 2016, to February 28, 2017, EPA will need to work much faster to even come close to its annual average number of 700-800 PMN reviews and keep the backlog of cases under review from continuing to grow.


 

The attorneys, scientists, policy experts, and regulatory advisors of Bergeson & Campbell, P.C. (B&C®), The Acta Group (Acta®), and B&C® Consortia Management, L.L.C. (BCCM) endeavor year-round to keep you informed on key developments as they happen, and prepared for looming changes and deadlines, to help you maintain compliance and competitive advantage as you market your products throughout the world. As the new year begins, we offer you this look back at the top stories of 2016 (as measured by clicks, reads, and shares by readers of our blogs and e-mails), a year that was full of surprises and dramatic shifts -- many of which will play out well into the new year.

 

June 22, 2016

TSCA Reform:  An Analysis of Key Provisions and Fundamental Shifts in the Amended TSCA

 

September 22, 2016

Proposition 65:  OEHHA Adopts Revisions to Its Proposition 65 Warning Regulations

 

August 8, 2016

TSCA Reform: Proposed Changes to SNUR Procedures Would, Perhaps Inadvertently, Result in Disclosure of CBI to Third Parties/Possible Competitors

 

June 29, 2016

TSCA Reform:  EPA Publishes First Year Implementation Plan

 

April 8, 2015

K-REACH:  List of Priority Existing Substances Submitted for Consultation

 

December 20, 2016

TSCA:  EPA Amends Procedures for TSCA Section 6 Rulemaking

 

January 6, 2016

EPA Releases Preliminary Risk Assessment for Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid

 

January 8, 2016

EPA Sued Over Guidance Classifying Seeds Coated with Neonicotinoid Insecticides as Treated Articles Exempt from Registration under FIFRA

 

February 10, 2016

Bayer Announces That It Will Not Submit Voluntary Cancellation Requests for Flubendiamide

 

October 19, 2016

Brazil Delays Promulgation of Final Industrial Chemicals Regulation

 

October 6, 2015

EPA Announces Revisions to Its Worker Protection Standard

 

September 28, 2016

EPA Announces Regulatory Determinations on MCANs and PMNs

 

January 13, 2016

EPA Denies SDA Nomenclature Petition, But Options for Adding Biobased Sources Remain Open

 

December 1, 2016

Brexit -- An Overview of Transformative Developments and Their Potential Impact on European Chemical Laws

 

 

Top Articles Authored by B&C:

 

Kathleen M. Roberts, Richard E. Engler, Ph.D., Charles M. Auer, Lynn L. Bergeson, "An Analysis of Section 8 of the New Toxic Substances Control Act," BNA Daily Environment Report, August 9, 2016.

 

Lynn L. Bergeson, Charles M. Auer, "An Analysis of TSCA Reform Provisions Pertinent to Industrial Biotechnology Stakeholders," Industrial Biotechnology, Volume 12, Issue 4, August 2016.

 

Charles M. Auer, "Old TSCA, New TSCA, and Chemical Testing," BNA Daily Environment Report, August 16, 2016.

 

L. Bergeson, B. Auerbach, L. Campbell, T. Backstrom, S. Dolan, J. Vergnes, R. Engler, J. Bultena, K. Baron, C. Auer, "The DNA of the U.S. Regulatory System: Are We Getting It Right for Synthetic Biology?," Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Synthetic Biology Project Report, October 15, 2015.

 

 

Coming first quarter 2017 from ABA Books:

 

Lynn L. Bergeson, Charles M. Auer, New TSCA: A Guide to the Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act and Its Implementation, American Bar Association (2017).


 

By Charles M. Auer and Oscar Hernandez, Ph.D.

On September 21, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) announced its regulatory determinations for a batch of Microbial Commercial Activity Notices (MCAN) and premanufacture notices (PMN).

The announcement by EPA consisted of ten new microorganisms submitted as MCANs and seven new chemicals submitted as PMNs.  All microorganisms and chemical substances were determined “not likely to present an unreasonable risk” (per Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 5(a)(3)(C)).  This determination was based in all cases on the low hazard of the microorganism or the chemical substance.  The microorganisms and chemical substances are:

MCANs:

  • J-16-0010:  Generic: Saccharomyces cerevisiae modified;
  • J-16-0011, J-16-0012, J-16-0013, J-16-0014, J-16-0015, and J-16-0016:  Generic:  Biofuel Producing Organism;
  • J-16-0017:  Generic: Saccharomyces cerevisiae modified;
  • J-16-0018:  Generic: Saccharomyces cerevisiae modified; and
  • J-16-0006:  Generic: Trichoderma reesei modified.

PMNs:

  • P-16-0343 and P-16-0344:  Generic:  Modified urethane polymer;
  • P-16-0391:  Generic:  Polyester polyol polymer with aliphatic isocyanate and phenol derivates;
  • P-16-0366: Generic:  Blocked polyisocyanate;
  • P-16-0373:  Generic:  Tris(alkyloxyphenyl)triazine compounds;
  • P-16-0466:  Generic:  2,5-Furandione, telomer with ethenylbenzene and (alkylethyl)benzene, amides with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol aminoalkyl Me ether, alkali salts; and
  • P-16-0348:  Generic: Polypentaerythritol, mixed esters with linear and branched monoacids.

In both types of submissions, the EPA reports are facilitated by the use of templates.  The footnotes in the template describe the approach and methodology followed to identify uses and to determine persistence, bioaccumulation, human health hazard, and environmental hazard. 

The MCAN template includes three footnotes that describe:  (1) identification of “known” and “reasonably foreseen” uses; (2) criteria for human health hazard; and (3) criteria for ecological hazard.

The PMN template includes seven footnotes that describe:  (1) identification of “known” and “reasonably foreseen” uses; (2) criteria for persistence; (3) criteria for bioaccumulation; (4) criteria for human health hazard ranking; (5) criteria for ecological hazard ranking; (6) link to the TSCA New Chemicals Program Chemical Categories; and (7) link to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) 2014 Guidance on Grouping of Chemicals.   The OECD link and a link to the Sustainable Futures Manual within footnote 5 are obsolete.

The ecological hazard ranking criteria are consistent with OPPT’s past practice.  The human health ranking criteria departs from practice by using a single descriptor for all endpoints.  Other approaches that EPA has used for several years utilize criteria that address specific end points.  Examples include the ChAMP (Chemical Assessment and Management Program) Methodology and the section 8(e) program.

Risk Determinations

For the MCANs, the “unlikely to present” determination is based on the human health hazard criteria identified in the template for human health hazard:  “a microorganism is considered to have low human health hazard if it is not known to be a frank human pathogen that causes disease in healthy adults, and/or animal studies have demonstrated a lack of pathogenicity or toxicity”; and “a microorganism is considered to be of low ecological hazard if it is not known to be an animal or plant pathogen, and the genetic modifications do not impart pathogenic or toxigenic traits, and the introduced genetic material does not provide a selective growth advantage in outcompeting indigenous microbial communities in the environment.”

For the chemical substances, estimates indicated that the majority of these chemicals were persistent or very persistent and bioaccumulation potential was low for all chemicals.  Human health hazard was determined by using a combination of physicochemical properties and structural analogs.  Ecological hazard determinations utilized analog information and, as appropriate, estimates made by the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Class Program.  Exposure estimates were not conducted based of the low hazard concern from which followed the “not likely to present an unreasonable risk” determination.


 

On July 22, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) posted on its website the first four Section 5(a)(3) determinations for premanufacture notices (PMN) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act (Pub. L. No. 114-182) (new TSCA). All four of the new chemicals were determined to satisfy the "not likely to present an unreasonable risk" determination at Section 5(a)(3)(C). It is notable that all four determinations relied on structure activity relationship (SAR) analyses and data on analogs.

In all four cases, EPA found low potential for health hazards and low potential for environmental hazards (low/low). EPA estimated that each substance has some degree of persistence (from limited persistence to very persistent) and that all four have a low potential for bioaccumulation. Based on our experience with the new chemicals program under TSCA prior to new TSCA, when EPA made a low/low hazard call and either a low potential for persistence or a low potential for bioaccumulation, EPA "dropped" the submissions from further review, avoiding the time and expense of performing exposure assessments on substances of low potential hazard.

Under new TSCA, to make a Section 5(a)(3)(C) determination, EPA must identify potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations (PESS) that are relevant under conditions of use. In these four Section 5(a)(3)(C) determinations, EPA identified known or reasonably foreseeable uses in addition to the uses identified in the PMNs. EPA identified the PESS under the intended use as workers for all four cases. We note that EPA identified consumers as a PESS if the substance notified in P-15-0281 was to be used as a lubricant or lubricant additive (the known or reasonably foreseen use that EPA identified). Even considering the PESS, EPA has concluded that a low hazard finding is sufficient to support a "not likely to present" finding under Section 5(a)(3)(C) and did not perform a formal exposure assessment. Since EPA has published the Section 5(a)(3)(C) findings, per Section 5(g), the submitters of these four PMNs may commence manufacturing without waiting for the remaining portion of the 90-day review period to expire.

PMN Generic name Use(s):
Intended
Known/foreseen
Persistence Bioaccumulation Health Hazard Environmental Hazard
P-16-0281 Fatty alcohols-dimers, trimers, polymers Reactive polyol
Lubricant and lubricant additive
Persistent Low Low Low
P-16-0292 Depolymerized waste plastics Intermediate for use in manufacture of polymers
Lubricant and lubricant additive
Very Persistent Low Low Low
P-16-0301 Propyl silsesquioxanes, hydrogen-terminated Intermediate
Lubricant and lubricant additive
Limited Persistence Low Low Low
P-16-0302 Organic modified propyl sisesquioxane Plastic additive
Finishing agent
Very Persistent Low Low Low

Commentary

EPA determined that all four new chemicals satisfy the "not likely to present an unreasonable risk" determination under Section 5(a)(3)(C). The conditions of use for these chemicals indicate industrial scenarios that would point to workers as the PESS. The potential exposure to workers was not estimated. Instead, the determination of not likely to present an unreasonable risk hinges on the low hazard potential for these chemicals. Three of the four chemicals were estimated to be persistent with two categorized as very persistent. The chemicals were estimated to have low potential for bioaccumulation. No information was provided about potential releases to water.

It is reassuring that the SAR was used to reach determinations about persistence, bioaccumulation, and hazard potential, including mention of category analysis. This suggests that EPA intends to maintain SAR as a basic component in its evaluation of new chemicals consistent with the provisions at Section 4(h) to reduce vertebrate animal testing and to maximize the use of existing hazard information.