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By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
As reported in our March 14, 2022, blog item, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on March 8, 2022, that it is planning to consolidate several Information Collection Requests (ICR) covering reporting and recordkeeping activities under Section 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). 87 Fed. Reg. 12954. EPA has since submitted the ICR to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. EPA published a notice on August 30, 2022, allowing for an additional 30 days for public comment. 87 Fed. Reg. 52967. Comments are due September 29, 2022.
 
The consolidated ICR is entitled “Reporting and Recordkeeping Under Section 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)” and is identified under EPA ICR No. 2703.01 and OMB Control No. 2070-[NEW]. According to EPA, it is consolidating the existing ICRs to streamline the presentation of the paperwork burden estimates, thereby reducing the administrative burden for both the public and EPA and allowing a better assessment of the burden and costs for reporting and recordkeeping activities under TSCA Section 8. EPA’s Supporting Statement summarizes the currently approved ICRs that would be consolidated in the new ICR:

  • TSCA Section 8(a) Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR): Under TSCA Section 8(a), persons who manufacture or import chemical substances listed at 40 C.F.R. Section 712.30 are subject to the Section 8(a) PAIR requirements. These manufacturers and importers must submit information about production, use, and/or exposure-related data. Certain specific chemical testing and reporting requirements under 40 C.F.R. Part 766 Subpart B that are very similar to the PAIR requirements are also covered within this information collection activity.
     
  • Chemical-Specific Rules, TSCA Section 8(a): Under TSCA Section 8(a), persons who manufacture, import, or process certain chemical substances or mixtures, or propose to manufacture, import, or process certain chemical substances or mixtures, are subject to chemical-specific rules promulgated under TSCA Section 8(a). A chemical-specific Section 8(a) rule requires more detailed and more types of information than is required by a PAIR rule. Any chemical covered by TSCA for which the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), other EPA offices, or another federal agency has a reasonable need for information, and that cannot be satisfied via readily available sources or by use of other rulemakings, is a proper potential subject for a chemical-specific TSCA Section 8(a) rulemaking.
     
  • Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements for Allegations of Significant Adverse Reactions to Human Health or the Environment: Under TSCA Section 8(c), persons who manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce any chemical substance or mixture must keep records of significant adverse reactions to health or the environment, as determined by the Administrator by rule, alleged to have been caused by the substance or mixture. TSCA Section 8(c) requires that allegations of adverse reactions to the health of employees be kept for 30 years, and all other allegations be kept for five years. The rule also prescribes the conditions under which a firm must submit or make the records available to a duly designated representative of the Administrator.
     
  • Health and Safety Data Reporting, Submission of Lists and Copies of Health and Safety Studies: Under TSCA Section 8(d), certain persons, who manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce (or propose to manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce) chemical substances and mixtures, are required to submit to EPA lists and copies of health and safety studies in their possession that relate health and/or environmental effects of the chemical substances and mixtures.

 
By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on March 8, 2022, that it is planning to consolidate several Information Collection Requests (ICR) covering reporting and recordkeeping activities under Section 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). 87 Fed. Reg. 12954. Before submitting the consolidated ICR to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval, EPA is soliciting comments on specific aspects of the proposed information collection. The consolidated ICR is entitled “Reporting and Recordkeeping Under Section 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)” and is identified under EPA ICR No. 2703.01 and OMB Control No. 2070-[NEW]. According to EPA, it intends to streamline the presentation of the paperwork burden estimates for these various activities and eliminate any duplication, which in turn is expected to reduce the administrative burden for both the public reviewers and EPA. EPA’s Supporting Statement summarizes the currently approved ICRs that would be consolidated in the new ICR:
  • TSCA Section 8(a) Preliminary Assessment Information Rule (PAIR): Under TSCA Section 8(a), persons who manufacture or import chemical substances listed at 40 C.F.R. Section 712.30 are subject to the Section 8(a) PAIR requirements. These manufacturers and importers must submit information about production, use, and/or exposure-related data. Certain specific chemical testing and reporting requirements under 40 C.F.R. Part 766 Subpart B that are very similar to the PAIR requirements are also covered within this information collection activity.
     
  • Chemical-Specific Rules, TSCA Section 8(a): Under TSCA Section 8(a), persons who manufacture, import, or process certain chemical substances or mixtures, or propose to manufacture, import, or process certain chemical substances or mixtures, are subject to chemical-specific rules promulgated under TSCA Section 8(a). A chemical-specific Section 8(a) rule requires more detailed and more types of information than is required by a PAIR rule. Any chemical covered by TSCA for which the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), other EPA offices, or another federal agency has a reasonable need for information, and that cannot be satisfied via readily available sources or by use of other rulemakings, is a proper potential subject for a chemical-specific TSCA Section 8(a) rulemaking.
     
  • Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements for Allegations of Significant Adverse Reactions to Human Health or the Environment: Under TSCA Section 8(c), persons who manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce any chemical substance or mixture must keep records of significant adverse reactions to health or the environment, as determined by the Administrator by rule, alleged to have been caused by the substance or mixture. TSCA Section 8(c) requires that allegations of adverse reactions to the health of employees be kept for 30 years, and all other allegations be kept for five years. The rule also prescribes the conditions under which a firm must submit or make the records available to a duly designated representative of the Administrator.
     
  • Health and Safety Data Reporting, Submission of Lists and Copies of Health and Safety Studies: Under TSCA Section 8(d), certain persons, who manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce (or propose to manufacture, import, process, or distribute in commerce) chemical substances and mixtures, are required to submit to EPA lists and copies of health and safety studies in their possession that relate health and/or environmental effects of the chemical substances and mixtures.
Comments are due May 9, 2022.

 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
On February 8, 2022, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the availability of and solicited public comment on an Information Collection Request (ICR) that EPA is planning to submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB): “Notification of Substantial Risk of Injury to Health and the Environment under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA),” identified by EPA ICR No. 0794.17 and OMB Control No. 2070-0046. 87 Fed. Reg. 7173. The ICR represents the renewal of an existing ICR that is currently approved through October 31, 2022. Before submitting the ICR to OMB for review and approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), EPA is soliciting comments on specific aspects of the information collection activities and burden estimates. Comments are due April 11, 2022.
 
Under TSCA Section 8(e), any person who manufactures (including imports), processes, or distributes in commerce a chemical substance or mixture and who obtains information that reasonably supports the conclusion that such substance or mixture presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment is required to inform EPA immediately of such information unless they have actual knowledge that EPA has been adequately informed of such information. There is also an option for those who wish to submit voluntarily “For Your Information” (FYI) notices. More information on TSCA Section 8(e) requirements is available in our TSCA frequently asked questions (FAQ).
 
EPA estimates that the total estimated number of potential respondents is 51 and that the total estimated average number of responses for each respondent is 343. There is a decrease of 3,847 hours from the last approval (from 21,412 to 17,565 hours). According to EPA, this reflects an overall decrease in the number of Section 8(e) and FYI submissions, which decreased from 408 to 343 Section 8(e) submissions and 13 to six FYI submissions, respectively. EPA has also increased the total annual costs due to an increase in the hourly wages and a change in the methodology to calculate loaded wages (wages plus fringe benefits and overhead).
 
EPA notes that in addition, OMB has requested that it move toward using the 18-question format for ICR Supporting Statements used by other federal agencies and departments that is based on the submission instructions established by OMB in 1995, replacing the alternate format developed by EPA and OMB prior to 1995. EPA states that it does not expect this change in format to result in substantive changes to the information collection activities or related estimated burden and costs.


 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on February 3, 2022, that it has resumed publishing notices of substantial risks provided by companies under Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to its ChemView database. EPA states that as the initial phase of its effort to develop an efficient and automated publication process, it started publishing notices received since the procedure lapsed in 2019 due to resource limitations. As resources allow, EPA will “continue to strive” to make non-confidential business information (CBI) versions of TSCA Section 8(e) notices publicly available in ChemView more quickly. EPA’s announcement includes the following questions and answers (Q&A):

What are TSCA section 8(e) notices?

Section 8(e) of TSCA states that “Any person who manufactures, imports, processes, or distributes in commerce a chemical substance or mixture and who obtains information which reasonably supports the conclusion that such substance or mixture presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment shall immediately inform the [EPA] Administrator of such information unless such person has actual knowledge that the Administrator has been adequately informed of such information.” 15 U.S.C. 2607(e). EPA guidance defines the term substantial-risk information as information which reasonably supports the conclusion that a chemical substance or mixture presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment and ‘‘substantial risk of injury to health or the environment’’ as a risk of considerable concern because of (a) the seriousness of the effect and (b) the fact or probability of its occurrence. Substantial Risk Notifications under TSCA section 8(e) should be submitted within 30 calendar days of obtaining substantial risk information.

The nature and extent of information in TSCA section 8(e) notices varies greatly, ranging from short memos providing limited information to fully detailed laboratory study reports. TSCA 8(e) notices may provide very preliminary data, often on substances that have not yet made it into commercial production. As such, the data provided in TSCA section 8(e) notices can be sparse, incomplete, qualitative or quantitative, and as such, may or may not be amenable to robust review or suitable for use in hazard or risk assessments or regulatory decision-making.

How are TSCA section 8(e) notices obtained by EPA?

TSCA section 8(e) notices (and related “FYI” notices) -- those containing confidential business information (CBI) and non-CBI versions -- are submitted by companies to EPA either electronically via EPA’s Central Data Exchange (CDX) or in hard copy via mail. For more information on submitting TSCA section 8(e) notices: https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/reporting-tsca-chemical-substantial-risk-notice[.]

What does EPA do when it receives a TSCA section 8(e) notice?

Upon receipt of a TSCA section 8(e) notice, these notices are uploaded to the internal Chemical Information System (CIS), EPA’s National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) approved e-record keeping system for TSCA records, including TSCA section 8(e) notices.

How do EPA Risk Assessors Access and Use TSCA section 8(e) notices?

TSCA section 8(e) notices are available to OPPT chemical risk assessors via an internal system, the Chemical Information System (CIS), that makes available any document that is submitted under TSCA to EPA staff. EPA assessors with requisite and up-to-date CBI training and clearance have access to both the CBI and non-CBI versions of TSCA section 8(e) notices as soon as they are uploaded to CIS -- electronically submitted notices are available immediately upon receipt, and paper submissions are typically available within 2 days of receipt. TSCA section 8(e) notices also undergo initial processing which includes entry of information such as effects/endpoint, type of effect, type of test, dose, duration, route of administration, species tested, etc. into an internal database. When the TSCA section 8(e) submission contains sufficient detail, EPA may task its contractor to summarize the human health or ecological hazard information for use in chemical assessments.

Data extracted from TSCA section 8(e) notices may also be incorporated into several internal CBI databases and computational tools (e.g., Analog Identification Methodology, ECOSAR) that are also available to EPA assessors.

EPA risk assessors routinely use the information included in TSCA section 8(e) notices in both TSCA new and existing chemical risk assessment activities. In the new chemicals program, chemicals with toxicity information that was submitted to the Agency via TSCA section 8(e) notices are often used as analogs to “read-across” to assess potential risks to new chemicals that have similar chemical structures but that lack test data. As described previously, TSCA section 8(e) data is also incorporated into AIM or ECOSAR, computational tools used routinely to assess potential risks of new chemicals.

For TSCA section 6 existing chemical risk evaluations, TSCA section 8(e) notices are an integral part of the information included within the TSCA Systematic Review process -- in the gray literature data stream identification and evaluation workflow. For example, the scopes of the risk evaluations for the 20 high priority substances and Manufacturer Requested Risk Evaluations (MRREs) currently underway clearly demonstrate where data from TSCA section 8(e) notices may be included (e.g., in the literature inventory trees and evidence maps). In addition, data contained in TSCA section 8(e) notices have also been used to inform the need for issuance of TSCA section 4 test orders to conduct testing of existing chemicals or to fill data gaps in lieu of conducting new testing.

How can the public access 8(e) notices?

Although not required by statute, EPA has a long history of making data contained in TSCA section 8(e) substantial risk notices publicly available. From 1976-2017, data from TSCA section 8(e) notices were compiled into the TSCATS (Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions) and TSCATS2 databases). The TSCATS database information was also made publicly available via the National Library of Medicine (NLM)’s TOXNET. When NLM discontinued TOXNET in December 2019, it made the TSCATS data publicly available for download (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/databases/download/toxlinesubset.html).

In 2013, EPA established its public-facing non-CBI ChemView portal, and began efforts to transfer electronically available non-CBI versions of TSCA section 8(e) notices and the data contained within them (i.e., from the TSCATS databases and/or TOXNET) into ChemView. However, beginning in 2019, EPA was not able to continue the regular publication of TSCA section 8(e) notices to the ChemView database. This heavily manual process was conducted by a single staff person who retired in December 2018. Other staff within the unit that would historically also do this type of work were fully occupied conducting other work to increase transparency associated with TSCA new chemicals submissions in response to a commitment made by the past EPA Administrator to Senator Carper (D-DE).

However, TSCA section 8(e) notices have continued to be available to the public via EPA’s Docket Center. Anyone can make a request to receive non-CBI versions of TSCA section 8(e) notices received by the agency either in person or via email (.(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)). Upon request and compilation (which can take time, depending upon the complexity of the request) the docket center will provide the requestor the information via email or other electronic media (e.g., CD). The public may also view paper copies of non-CBI versions of TSCA section 8(e) notices received by the Agency in person at the Docket Center Reading Room (due to COVID, this option is currently by appointment only). Find information about contacting EPA’s docket center reading room.


 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) announced on January 5, 2022, that it filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia to compel the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to disclose reports submitted pursuant to Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). According to the complaint, PEER submitted a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request in November 2021 seeking records demonstrating how EPA deals with Section 8(e) reports. PEER states that it requested both Section 8(e) reports submitted to EPA and internal policies regarding publicly posting and using Section 8(e) reports. PEER notes that its FOIA request “built upon information reported in a November 2021 article in The Intercept noting that EPA had only posted one 8(e) report publicly since 2019 and describing disagreement over how the EPA processes 8(e) reports internally.”

In its announcement, PEER states that TSCA requires industry to notify EPA within 30 days when it obtains information that reasonably supports the conclusion that a chemical substance presents a substantial risk of injury to health or the environment. According to PEER, in early 2019, EPA stopped posting these industry reports in its public-facing database or on an easily searchable internal database. While industry submitted and EPA published more than 1,000 substantial risk reports from 2017 through 2018, PEER states that since 2019, EPA has posted only one to the public database. EPA scientists informed PEER that another approximately 1,240 reports have been received but sequestered.

PEER states that “[a]n EPA spokesperson told a news reporter that the person who had been responsible for posting these reports had retired in December 2018; and the agency lacked fundings to replace this single employee. However, at the same time, the agency finances an online tool enabling chemical companies to track their products through the approval process – internally called the ‘pizza tracker.’”

PEER asks the court to enter an order declaring that EPA wrongfully withheld requested documents and to issue a permanent injunction directing EPA to disclose all wrongfully withheld documents.


 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton

On December 10, 2021, the Biden Administration released its Fall 2021 Unified Agenda of Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) rule list, the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) is working on the following rulemakings under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Rulemakings at the proposed stage include:

  • Tiered Data Reporting to Inform Prioritization, Risk Evaluation, and Risk Management Under TSCA (2070-AK62): EPA is developing this rule to obtain information about potential hazards and exposure pathways related to certain chemicals, particularly occupational, environmental, and consumer exposure information. EPA states that this information is needed to inform prioritization, risk evaluation, and risk management of the chemical substances under TSCA Section 6. EPA intends to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in July 2022 and a final rule in March 2023. More information on the rulemaking is available in our July 29, 2021, memorandum;
     
  • Revisions to the TSCA Fees Rule (2070-AK64): In January 2021, EPA proposed updates and adjustments to the 2018 TSCA Fees Rule. EPA proposed to add three new fee categories: a Bona Fide Intent to Manufacture or Import Notice, a Notice of Commencement of Manufacture or Import, and an additional fee associated with test orders. In addition, EPA proposed exemptions for entities subject to certain fee triggering activities, including: an exemption for research and development activities; an exemption for entities manufacturing less than 2,500 pounds of a chemical subject to an EPA-initiated risk evaluation fee; an exemption for manufacturers of chemical substances produced as a non-isolated intermediate; and exemptions for manufacturers of a chemical substance subject to an EPA-initiated risk evaluation if the chemical substance is imported in an article, produced as a byproduct, or produced or imported as an impurity. EPA proposed a volume-based fee allocation for EPA-initiated risk evaluation fees in any scenario where a consortium is not formed and proposed to require export-only manufacturers to pay fees for EPA-initiated risk evaluations. EPA states that in light of public comments, it has decided to issue a supplemental proposal and seek additional public comment on changes to the January 2021 proposal. EPA intends to issue a supplemental NPRM in February 2022. EPA has not determined when it will issue a final rule. More information on the proposed rule is available in our December 30, 2020, memorandum;
     
  • New Chemicals Procedural Regulations to Reflect Amendments to TSCA (2070-AK65): This rulemaking seeks to revise the new chemicals procedural regulations in 40 C.F.R. Part 720 to improve the efficiency of EPA’s review process and to align its processes and procedures with the new statutory requirements. According to EPA, this rulemaking seeks to increase the quality of information initially submitted in new chemicals notices and improve its processes “to reduce unnecessary rework in the risk assessment and, ultimately, the length of time that new chemicals are under review.” EPA intends to publish an NPRM in September 2022. EPA has not determined when it will issue a final rule;
     
  • Procedures for Submitting Information Subject to Business Confidentiality Claims Under TSCA (2070-AK68): EPA states that it is considering proposing new and amended rules concerning the assertion and maintenance of claims of business confidentiality (i.e., confidential business information (CBI)) under TSCA. The 2016 TSCA amendments included several new provisions concerning the assertion and EPA review and treatment of confidentiality claims. EPA is considering procedures for submitting and supporting such claims in TSCA submissions, including substantiation requirements, exemptions, electronic reporting enhancements, and maintenance or withdrawal of confidentiality claims. EPA is also considering whether the proposed rule should elaborate on EPA’s procedures for reviewing and communicating with TSCA submitters about confidentiality claims. According to EPA, it expects the proposed rule to include new provisions, as well as revisions to existing rules on asserting confidentiality claims to conform to the 2016 amendments. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in April 2022;
     
  • Cyclic Aliphatic Bromide Cluster (HBCD); Rulemaking Under TSCA Section 6(a) (2070-AK71): TSCA Section 6 requires EPA to address unreasonable risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator has determined are presented by a chemical substance under the conditions of use. Following a TSCA Section 6 risk evaluation for HBCD, EPA initiated rulemaking to address unreasonable risks of injury to health and the environment identified in the final risk evaluation. EPA intends to publish an NPRM by September 2022 and a final rule by April 2024. More information on the final risk evaluation is available in our September 28, 2020, memorandum;
     
  • 1-Bromopropane; Rulemaking Under TSCA Section 6(a) (2070-AK73): TSCA Section 6 requires EPA to address unreasonable risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator has determined are presented by a chemical substance under the conditions of use. Following a TSCA Section 6 risk evaluation for 1-bromopropane, EPA initiated rulemaking to address unreasonable risks of injury to health identified in the final risk evaluation. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in October 2022 and a final rule in May 2024. More information on the final risk evaluation is available in our August 11, 2020, memorandum;
     
  • Carbon Tetrachloride; Rulemaking Under TSCA Section 6(a) (2070-AK82): TSCA Section 6 requires EPA to address unreasonable risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator has determined are presented by a chemical substance under the conditions of use. Following a TSCA Section 6 risk evaluation for carbon tetrachloride, EPA initiated rulemaking to address unreasonable risks of injury to health identified in the final risk evaluation. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in October 2022 and a final rule in June 2024. More information on the final risk evaluation is available in our November 4, 2020, memorandum;
     
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE); Rulemaking Under TSCA Section 6(a) (2070-AK83): TSCA Section 6 requires EPA to address unreasonable risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator has determined are presented by a chemical substance under the conditions of use. Following a TSCA Section 6 risk evaluation for TCE carried out under the authority of TSCA Section 6, EPA initiated rulemaking to address unreasonable risks of injury to health identified in the final risk evaluation. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in October 2022 and a final rule in June 2024. More information on the final risk evaluation is available in our November 24, 2020, memorandum;
     
  • Asbestos (Part 1: Chrysotile Asbestos); Rulemaking under TSCA Section 6(a) (2070-AK86): TSCA Section 6 requires EPA to address unreasonable risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator has determined are presented by a chemical substance under the conditions of use. Following a TSCA Section 6 risk evaluation for chrysotile asbestos, EPA initiated rulemaking to address unreasonable risks of injury to health identified in the final risk evaluation. EPA intends to issue an NPRM by April 2022 and a final rule by November 2023. More information on the final risk evaluation is available in our January 4, 2021, memorandum;
     
  • Reconsideration of Procedures for Chemical Risk Evaluation Under the Amended TSCA (2070-AK90): EPA published a final rule on July 20, 2017, that established a process for conducting risk evaluations to determine whether a chemical substance presents an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, without consideration of costs or other non-risk factors, including an unreasonable risk to a potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation, under the conditions of use. This process incorporates the science requirements of the amended statute, including best available science and weight of the scientific evidence. The final rule established the steps of a risk evaluation process, including: scope, hazard assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and risk determination. EPA states that it is now in the process of reconsidering the final rule in keeping with new executive orders (EO) concerning the advancement of racial equity and support for underserved communities through the federal government (EO 13985), the protection of public health and the environment and restoring science to tackle the climate crisis (EO 13990), tackling the climate crisis at home and abroad (EO 14008), and other Administration priorities (such as the Presidential memorandum on restoring trust in government through scientific integrity and evidence-based policymaking). If EPA determines to amend the 2017 final rule based on its reconsideration, it will solicit public comment through an NPRM. EPA intends to publish an NPRM in September 2022;
     
  • Regulation of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Chemicals Under TSCA Section 6(h); Phenol, Isopropylated Phosphate (3:1) (PIP (3:1)); Further Compliance Date Extension (2070-AK95): EPA proposed in October 2021 to amend the regulations applicable to PIP (3:1) promulgated under TSCA. Specifically, EPA proposes to extend the compliance date applicable to the processing and distribution in commerce of certain PIP (3:1)-containing articles and the PIP (3:1) used to make those articles until October 31, 2024, along with the associated recordkeeping requirements for manufacturers, processors, and distributors of PIP (3:1)-containing articles. EPA notes that the articles covered by the proposed rule include a wide range of key consumer and commercial goods such as cellular telephones, laptop computers, and other electronic and electrical devices and industrial and commercial equipment used in various sectors, including transportation, construction, agriculture, forestry, mining, life sciences, and semiconductor production. The proposed rule follows a recently-issued final rule that extended the compliance date applicable to the processing and distribution in commerce of certain PIP (3:1)-containing articles, and the PIP (3:1) used to make those articles, from March 8, 2021, to March 8, 2022, along with the associated recordkeeping requirements. Comments on the proposed rule are due December 27, 2021. EPA intends to issue a final rule in March 2022. More information on the proposed rule is available in our October 25, 2021, memorandum; and
     
  • TSCA Section 8(a) Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for Asbestos (2070-AK99): This rulemaking, under the authority of TSCA Section 8(a), would require the maintenance of records and submission to EPA of reports by manufacturers, importers, and processors of asbestos and mixtures and articles containing asbestos (including as an impurity). EPA states that the information sought includes data on the quantities of asbestos used in making products, employee exposure data, and waste disposal data. Reported information would be used by EPA and other federal agencies in considering the regulation of asbestos. EPA intends to issue an NPRM in March 2022 and a final rule in November 2022.

The Unified Agenda lists the following TSCA rulemaking at the final stage:

  • Significant New Uses of Chemical Substances; Updates to the Hazard Communication Program and Regulatory Framework; Minor Amendments to Reporting Requirements for Premanufacture Notices (PMN) (2070-AJ94): EPA proposed amending components of the Significant New Uses of Chemical Substances regulations at 40 C.F.R. Part 721, specifically the “Protection in the Workplace” (40 C.F.R. Section 721.63) and “Hazard Communication Program” (40 C.F.R. Section 721.72). 81 Fed. Reg. 49598. The proposed changes are intended to align, where possible, EPA’s regulations with the revised Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations at 29 C.F.R. Section 1910.1200. OSHA issued a final rule on March 26, 2012, (77 Fed. Reg. 17573) that aligns OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standards with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). EPA states that it is reviewing the comments received and is planning to issue a final rule. EPA intends to issue a final rule in September 2022. More information on EPA’s 2016 proposed rule is available in our July 29, 2016, memorandum.

 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule on June 29, 2021, that requires manufacturers (including importers) of 50 specified chemical substances to report certain lists and copies of unpublished health and safety studies to EPA. 86 Fed. Reg. 34147. EPA is issuing the final rule pursuant to Section 8(d) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the TSCA Health and Safety Data Reporting rule codified at 40 C.F.R. Part 716. The chemical substances subject to the rule consist of the 20 designated by EPA as high-priority substances and the 30 organohalogen flame retardants being evaluated for risks by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). EPA states that it is taking this action because the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) added these chemical substances to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List through its 69th and 74th Reports. EPA will use the submitted information to inform the risk evaluations currently underway for 20 high-priority substances and for future prioritization.
 
The table below lists the high-priority substances and organohalogen flame retardants included in the final rule.
 

Chemical Substance Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number
High-Priority Substances
1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) (1,2-Benzene-dicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester) 85-68-7
Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (1,2-Benzene-dicarboxylic acid, 1,2-dibutyl ester) 84-74-2
o-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1
p-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3
1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-60-5
1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5
Dicyclohexyl phthalate 84-61-7
Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (1,2-Benzene-dicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester) 117-81-7
Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (1,2-Benzene-dicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(2-methylpropyl) ester) 84-69-5
Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4
Formaldehyde 50-00-0
1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) 1222-05-5
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bis[2,6-dibromophenol] (TBBPA) 79-94-7
Phosphoric acid, triphenyl ester (TPP) 115-86-6
Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) 115-96-8
Organohalogen Flame Retardants
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate 26040-51-7
Bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane 13560-89-9
1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane 37853-59-1
1,1'-Ethane-1,2-diylbis(pentabromobenzene) 84852-53-9
2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate 183658-27-7
2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl 2-hydroxypropyl 3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate 20566-35-2
2,2'-[(1-Methylethylidene)bis[(2,6-dibromo-4,1-phenylene)oxymethylene]]bis[oxirane] 3072-84-2
Mixture of chlorinated linear alkanes C14-17 with 45-52 % chlorine 85535-85-9
N,N-Ethylene-bis(tetrabromophthalimide) 32588-76-4
Pentabromochlorocyclohexane 87-84-3
(Pentabromophenyl)methyl acrylate 59447-55-1
Pentabromotoluene 87-83-2
Perbromo-1,4-diphenoxybenzene 58965-66-5
Phosphonic acid, (2-chloroethyl)-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester 6294-34-4
Phosphoric acid, 2,2-bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediyl tetrakis(2-chloroethyl) ester 38051-10-4
Propanoic acid, 2-bromo-, methyl ester 5445-17-0
Tetrabromobisphenol A-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) 21850-44-2
Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether 4162-45-2
Tetrabromobisphenol A diallyl ether 25327-89-3
Tetrabromobisphenol A dimethyl ether 37853-61-5
2,4,6-Tribromoaniline 147-82-0
1,3,5-Tribromo-2-(prop-2-en-1-yloxy)benzene 3278-89-5
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphite 140-08-9
Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate 13674-84-5
Tris(2-chloro-1-propyl)phosphate 6145-73-9
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate 126-72-7
1,3,5-Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione 52434-90-9
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate 13674-87-8
Tris(tribromoneopentyl)phosphate 19186-97-1
2,4,6-Tris-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine 25713-60-4

 
The final rule will be effective July 29, 2021. Requests to withdraw a chemical substance from the final rule pursuant to 40 C.F.R. Section 716.105(c) must be received by July 13, 2021. Information specified in the final rule is due to EPA by September 27, 2021. Detailed information about the final rule is available in our June 29, 2021, memorandum, “Manufacturers and Importers of 20 High-Priority Chemicals and 30 Organohalogen Flame Retardants Must Submit Data to EPA.”


 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
On June 28, 2021, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed reporting and recordkeeping requirements for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). 86 Fed. Reg. 33926. EPA proposes to require certain persons that manufacture (including import) or have manufactured PFAS in any year since January 1, 2011, to report information electronically regarding PFAS uses, production volumes, disposal, exposures, and hazards. EPA requests public comment on all aspects of the proposed rule and states that it has also identified the following items “of particular interest for public input”:

  • Identifying the chemical substances that would be subject to reporting;
  • Considerations for EPA’s economic analysis: EPA is specifically seeking additional information and data that EPA could consider in developing the final economic analysis;
  • Submission period: EPA proposes a six-month submission period for reporting entities that would begin six months following the effective date of the final rule;
  • Duplicative reporting: EPA requests comment on whether any additional data elements may be duplicative of information collected by EPA under TSCA or other federal statutes;
  • Scope of environmental and health effects information collected: EPA requests comment on what existing environmental and health effects information should be within the scope of the rule;
  • Additional information or data elements: EPA states that it is interested in comments on whether the final rule should include a data field allowing reporters to provide generic names or descriptions in the event a manufacturer is aware they have produced or imported a PFAS but are not able to ascertain reasonably the specific PFAS identity. EPA is also requesting comments on additional data elements such as composition information if a PFAS has a variable composition, analytical methods, and whether occupational exposure information should distinguish occupational nonusers (i.e., those nearby but not in direct contact with the chemical) from workers (i.e., those who are in direct contact with the chemical);
  • EPA’s use and publication of certain non-confidential business information (CBI) data;
  • Joint submissions: EPA is requesting public comment on whether it should enable the use of joint submissions in specific circumstances, similar to Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) joint submissions; and
  • Small manufacturers: EPA is requesting public comment on how it may assist small manufacturers with compliance with the proposed rule.

Comments are due August 27, 2021. EPA states that “[‌u]nder the Paperwork Reduction Act, comments on the information collection provisions are best assured of consideration if the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) receives a copy of your comments on or before July 28, 2021.” More information is available in our June 11, 2021, memorandum, “EPA Announces Three PFAS Actions, Including Proposed TSCA Section 8(a) Reporting Rule.”


 

By Lynn L. Bergeson and Carla N. Hutton
 
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on June 10, 2021, three actions intended to protect communities from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The actions include proposing a rule designed to obtain comprehensive data on more than 1,000 PFAS manufactured in the United States, withdrawing guidance that EPA believes weakened its July 2020 significant new use rule (SNUR) restricting certain long-chain PFAS, and publishing a final rule that incorporates three additional PFAS into the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) maintained under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Below is a brief summary of the actions. More detailed information and an insightful commentary are available in our forthcoming memorandum that will be posted on our website.

Proposed TSCA Rule to Require Reporting on PFAS Manufactured in the United States

The fiscal year 2020 (FY2020) National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) amended the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to add Section 8(a)(7), mandating that EPA promulgate a rule “requiring each person who has manufactured a chemical substance that is a [PFAS] in any year since January 1, 2011” to report certain information. EPA’s proposed rule would require all manufacturers (including importers) of PFAS in any year since 2011 to report information related to chemical identity, categories of use, volumes manufactured and processed, byproducts, environmental and health effects, worker exposure, and disposal. EPA states that the proposed rule will help it better understand the sources and quantities of PFAS manufactured in the United States and support its research, monitoring, and regulatory efforts. Publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register will begin a 60-day comment period.

Withdrawing Compliance Guide on PFAS SNUR

In accordance with the Biden-Harris Administration’s Executive Orders and other directives, including those on environmental justice, scientific integrity, and regulatory review, EPA states that it has withdrawn a compliance guide that EPA believes weakened the July 27, 2020, final SNUR for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonate chemical substances (85 Fed. Reg. 45109). The final rule prohibits companies from importing certain long-chain PFAS as part of a “surface coating” on articles without prior EPA review and approval. EPA states that examples of articles that could contain these PFAS as part of a surface coating include, but are not limited to, automotive parts, carpet, furniture, and electronic components.

As reported in our January 20, 2021, blog item, EPA issued the compliance guide in January 2021 in the last days of the previous Administration and limited what would be considered a “surface coating” subject to the SNUR. EPA states that “[t]he guide was never deemed necessary by career staff and its development was directed by political officials serving in the last Administration.” Additionally, EPA prepared the final guide without considering or addressing comments submitted by the public. After further review, EPA “determined that the guide inappropriately narrowed the scope and weakened the prohibitions included in the SNUR.”

Implementing NDAA Requirements to Report PFAS to TRI

The NDAA provided a framework for additional PFAS to be added to TRI on an annual basis. For TRI Reporting Year 2021 (reporting forms due by July 1, 2022), the NDAA automatically added three PFAS to the TRI list because they are now subject to a SNUR under TSCA. EPA issued a final rule on June 3, 2021, incorporating these requirements into the Code of Federal Regulations for TRI (86 Fed. Reg. 29698). Per the NDAA requirements, the PFAS additions became effective as of January 1, 2021. Reporting forms for these PFAS will be due to EPA by July 1, 2022, for calendar year 2021 data.

Tags: PFAS, SNUR, Section 8, TRI,

 

By Lynn L. Bergeson, Carla N. Hutton, and Holly M. Williams

On June 30, 2020, the Trump Administration released the Spring 2020 Unified Agenda of Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.)  According to the Unified Agenda, the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) is working on several rulemakings under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).  Rulemakings at the proposed stage are listed below:

  • Review of Dust-Lead Post-Abatement Clearance Levels.  On June 24, 2020, EPA published a proposed rule that would lower the amount of lead that can remain in dust on floors and windowsills after lead removal activities (dust-lead clearance levels (DLCL)) from 40 micrograms (µg) of lead in dust per square foot (ft2) to 10 µg/ft2 for floor dust and from 250 µg/ft2 to 100 µg/ft2 for window sill dust.  85 Fed. Reg. 37810.  Comments on the proposed rule are due August 24, 2020.  EPA intends to publish a final rule in September 2020.
     
  • Reporting and Recordkeeping for Certain Chemicals under TSCA Section 8(a).  EPA is developing a rulemaking under TSCA Section 8(a) to add certain chemicals that are on the TSCA Work Plan to the Chemical-Specific Reporting and Recordkeeping rules in 40 C.F.R. Part 704, Subpart B.  EPA is developing this rule to obtain information about potential hazards and exposure pathways related to certain chemicals on the TSCA Work Plan, particularly occupational, environmental, and consumer exposure information.  EPA states that this information is needed to inform prioritization and risk evaluation of the chemical substances, as mandated under TSCA Section 6.  EPA intends to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in November 2020 and a final rule in June 2021.
     
  • Revisions to the Fees Rule under TSCA.  EPA is reviewing its 2018 final rule that established the requirements and procedures for setting and collecting fees from chemical manufacturers (including importers) and, in some cases, processors, submitters of new chemical substances, and others.  TSCA Section 26(b)(4)(F) requires EPA to review and adjust the fees every three years and to consult with parties potentially subject to fees when the fees are reviewed and updated to reflect changes in program costs.  EPA states that in addition to possible revisions resulting from this review, consistent with its announcement in March 2020, it will also consider proposing exemptions to the current rule’s self-identification requirements associated with EPA-initiated risk evaluations for manufacturers that:  (1) import the chemical substance in an article; (2) produce the chemical substance as a byproduct; and (3) produce or import the chemical substance as an impurity.  EPA intends to issue an NPRM in December 2020 and a final rule in October 2021.  More information on EPA’s March 2020 announcement is available in our April 17, 2020, blog item.
     
  • Updates to New Chemicals Procedural Regulations to Reflect the 2016 TSCA Amendments:  EPA states that the 2016 amendments impacted how it reviews and makes determinations on new chemical notices under TSCA Section 5.  EPA acknowledges that as a result of these increased responsibilities, “it has become more challenging for EPA to complete reviews within 90 days.”  This rulemaking seeks to revise the procedural regulations in 40 C.F.R. Part 720 to improve the efficiency of EPA’s review process and to align its processes and procedures with the new statutory requirements.  EPA intends to increase the quality of information initially submitted in new chemicals notices and improve its processes to reduce unnecessary rework in the risk assessment and, ultimately, the length of time that new chemicals are under review.  EPA intends to publish an NPRM in September 2020 and a final rule in July 2021.

Rulemakings at the final stage include:

  • Significant New Uses of Chemical Substances; Updates to the Hazard Communication Program and Regulatory Framework; Minor Amendments to Reporting Requirements for Premanufacture Notices.  On July 28, 2016, EPA proposed amending components of the Significant New Uses of Chemical Substances regulations at 40 C.F.R. Section 721, specifically the “Protection in the Workplace” (40 C.F.R. Section 721.63) and “Hazard Communication Program” (40 C.F.R. Section 721.72).  The proposed changes are intended to align, where possible, EPA’s regulations with the revised Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations at 29 C.F.R. Section 1910.1200.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in August 2020.  More information on the proposed rule is available in our July 29, 2016, memorandum, “:  TSCA:  Proposed Revisions to Significant New Use Rules Reflect Current Occupational Safety and Health Standards.”
     
  • Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate (LCPFAC) and Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonate Chemical Substances (PFAS); Significant New Use Rule (SNUR).  In a January 21, 2015, proposed SNUR for LCPFAC and PFAS chemical substances, EPA proposed to require notification of significant new uses from persons who import a subset of LCPFAC chemical substances as part of any article.  80 Fed. Reg. 2885.  EPA proposed to make the exemption from notification requirements for persons who import the chemical substance as part of an article inapplicable for the import of a subset of LCPFAC chemical substances in all articles.  As reported in our February 28, 2020, memorandum, “Proposed Supplemental SNUR Would Remove Exemption for LCPFAC Chemical Substances Used as Surface Coatings on Articles,” EPA issued a supplemental proposal that would make inapplicable the exemption for persons who import a subset of LCPFAC chemical substances as part of surface coatings on articles.  EPA intended to issue a final rule in June 2020.
     
  • Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DecaBDE); Regulation of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h).  TSCA Section 6(h) directs EPA to issue regulations under Section 6(a) for certain PBT chemical substances identified in the 2014 update of the TSCA Work Plan.  EPA states that it is selecting among the available prohibitions and other restrictions in TSCA Section 6(a) to address risks of injury to health or the environment that the Administrator determines are presented by the chemical substances and reduce exposure to the chemical substances to the extent practicable.  Since the statute states that a risk evaluation is not required for these chemical substances under TSCA Section 6(h), EPA developed an exposure and use assessment.  According to the Unified Agenda item, EPA intends to take final action on all of the chemicals that were addressed in the July 29, 2019, proposed rule (i.e., the following PBT chemicals identified in TSCA Section 6(h):  DecaBDE; phenol, isopropylated phosphate  (PIP) (3:1); 2,4,6-tris(tert-butyl)phenol (TTBP); pentachlorothiophenol (PCTP); and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD).  Although addressed in a single proposed rule, EPA intends to issue separate final rules.  EPA proposed to prohibit the manufacture (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce of DecaBDE, and articles and products to which DecaBDE has been added with several exceptions, and proposed to require affected persons to maintain, for three years from the date the record is generated, ordinary business records that demonstrate compliance with the restrictions, prohibitions, and other requirements.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in December 2020.  More information is available in our June 24, 2019, memorandum, “EPA Publishes Proposed PBT Chemicals Rule under TSCA.”
     
  • PIP (3:1); Regulation of PBT Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h).  EPA proposed to prohibit the processing and distribution in commerce of PIP (3:1), and products containing the chemical substance with several exceptions; prohibit releases to water from the non-prohibited processing, distribution in commerce, and commercial use activities.  Persons manufacturing, processing, and distributing PIP (3:1), and products containing PIP (3:1), in commerce would be required to notify their customers of these restrictions, and EPA proposed to require affected persons to maintain, for three years from the date the record is generated, ordinary business records that demonstrate compliance with the restrictions, prohibitions, and other requirements.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in December 2020.
     
  • TTBP; Regulation of PBT Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h.).  EPA proposed to prohibit the distribution in commerce of 2,4,6-TTBP and products containing 2,4,6-TTBP in any container with a volume of less than 55 gallons for any use to prevent the use of 2,4,6-TTBP as a fuel additive or fuel injector cleaner by consumers and small commercial operations (e.g., automotive repair shops, marinas).  The proposed restriction also would prohibit processing and distribution in commerce of 2,4,6-TTBP, and products containing 2,4,6-TTBP, for use as an oil or lubricant additive, regardless of container size.  EPA also proposed to require affected persons to maintain, for three years from the date the record is generated, ordinary business records that demonstrate compliance with the restrictions, prohibitions, and other requirements.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in December 2020.
     
  • PCTP; Regulation of PBT Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h).  EPA proposed to prohibit the manufacture (including import), processing, and distribution in commerce of PCTP, and products containing PCTP, unless in concentrations at or below one percent by weight; and proposed to require affected persons to maintain, for three years from the date the record is generated, ordinary business records that demonstrate compliance with the restrictions, prohibitions, and other requirements.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in December 2020.
     
  • HCBD; Regulation of PBT Chemicals under TSCA Section 6(h).  For HCBD, EPA proposed no regulatory action.  EPA intends to issue a final rule in December 2020.

 
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